Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), which can be caused by a variety of modes of exercise, including resistance training, prolonged running, and intermittent high-intensity exercise, is an important aspect of athlete recovery. EIMD causes muscle structure damage, soreness, decreased range of motion and decreased force-producing capacity.
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EIMD is known to have two stages. The first phase consists of initial structural damage caused by mechanical and metabolic stress during exercise, and the second phase consists of inflammatory responses to damaged tissue. This occurs in the hours/days following exercise and is thought to be an important part of the muscle repair process.
Branch Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) are one of the most popular intra and post-workout recovery supplements right now. L-Leucine, L-Isoleucine, and L-Valine are the BCAAs. These are three amino acids found in normal protein structures, but in this form, they are considered unbound. This increases the rate of amino acid absorption and allows amino acids to be shuttled into the blood plasma. Muscle catabolism (muscle breakdown) can be prevented quickly by taking BCAAs, especially when used in high-volume cardio work.
Finally, Citrulline Malate is one of the most underutilised supplements available. Citrulline Malate is one of the most beneficial supplements for both weight lifting and cardio, but it is frequently overlooked or underdosed by athletes. Many products contain only 1-2g of Citrulline Malate per serving to be used daily, whereas typical accepted dosing values begin at 5g per day and only increase from there. One of the most significant advantages of citrulline is that it aids in the removal of ammonia from the body. All exercise generates ammonia, which is toxic to the body and reduces workout performance 2. Citrulline, on the other hand, will aid in the reduction of not only ammonia but also other potentially harmful byproducts of exercise.